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    Research on CEI phase delay resolving method for BDS GEO satellite
    CHEN Shaowu, WANG Jingwen, HUANG Lei, XU Dezhen
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (6): 123-130.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0079
    Abstract481)      PDF(pc) (3537KB)(308)      
    Connected element interferometry (CEI) is a precision angular measurement technology widely used in the orbit determination of MEO satellites, GEO satellites, lunar probes and deep space probes. A new measurement mode was proposed based on the characteristics of CEI. The carrier and ranging signals in coherent ranging mode were used in CEI. A CEI system was established and used to observe BDS (BeiDou navigation satellite system) GEO satellite. Group delay and phase delay were calculated by using all these signals. Group delay and phase delay results of the BDS GEO satellite were estimated by using the theoretical delay values calculated by precision ephemeris. The results show that the means of the residual of group delay and phase delay is 0.47ns and 0.08ns, and that the standard deviation (3σ) of the residual of group delay and phase delay is 4.2ns and 0.13ns. The feasibility of the phase delay calculation of CEI in coherent ranging mode is verified. This paper can provide reference for precision orbit determination of co-location GEO satellites, lunar probes and deep space probes.
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    System design and key technolongies of the GF-7 satellite
    CAO Haiyi, ZHANG Xinwei, ZHAO Chenguang, XU Chi, MO Fan, DAI Jun
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 1-9.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0052
    Abstract418)      PDF(pc) (5941KB)(362)      
    GF-7 satellite is the first 1∶10000 scale stereoscopic surveying and mapping satellite independently developed in China, and an important part of the national high resolution earth observation system. The satellite is based on the active and passive combined surveying and mapping system of “two-line array surveying and mapping + laser altimetry” and forms a series of key technologies and innovation points, such as highprecision internal/external element stability design, highprecision attitude stability control, the first X-band adaptive high-rate data transmission system, and onboard intelligent satellite management system. The capability of large scale stereoscopic mapping with little or no control points was realized. The system design of the satellite was described, and the technical innovation points were summarized such as observation system, high-precision load, attitude control, digital data transmission, intelligent satellite service, etc. The preliminary evaluation was carried out through the test results of satellites in orbit, and the satellites can meet the requirements of the 1∶10000 surveying and mapping mission.
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    Research on autonomous navigation method for deep space exploration spacecraft in cruise phase
    YE Zipeng, ZHOU Qingrui, WANG Hui
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 53-60.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0058
    Abstract302)      PDF(pc) (3856KB)(301)      
    A method for autonomous navigation of deep space exploration spacecraft was proposed. In order to cope with the error of the spacecraft orbital dynamics model in deep space exploration, not only the radial velocity of the spacecraft relative to the sun, but also the line of sight vector of the asteroid was measured. The position information obtained by the asteroid's line of sight vector was calculated by the least squares method, and the state estimation error caused by the inexact dynamic model in the extended Kalman filter was modified by the improved information fusion method. At the same time, the observability of the model was calculated and analyzed. The simulation results show that the dependence of the algorithm on the dynamic model is significantly lower than that of the other algorithms. Under the same model precision, better result can be obtained.
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    Research on the application efficiency of variable coding modulation in remote sensing satellite
    ZHANG Shasha, CAO Haiyi, ZHANG Xinwei, YAO Xingyu, ZHENG Xiaosong, ZHANG Yu
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 18-25.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0054
    Abstract299)      PDF(pc) (3531KB)(137)      
    With the increasing amount of LEO remote sensing satellite observation data,the ability of data transmission has become a  factor to restrict the efficiency of satellite. Variable coding modulation (VCM) can be used to make full use of the system link margin, based on the dynamic evaluation of the satellite-ground data transmission channel conditions. And on the premise of ensuring the bit error rate and link margin, the optimal coding and modulation mode switching under the current channel conditions are carried out adaptively, so as to improve the satellite data transmission efficiency. Using this method, the efficiency of log link was simulated and analyzed. Compared with the constant coding modulation (CCM) with the same symbol rate, the transmission efficiency was increased by 42.1% on average, which can provide a reference for the design of data transmission channel of remote sending satellite.
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    Dimensional stability design and verification of GF-7 satellite structure
    QIAN Zhiying, LUO Wenbo, YIN Yazhou, ZHANG Ling, BAI Gang, CAI Zheng, FU Weichun, LU Qingrong, ZHANG Xinwei, ZHAO Chenguang
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 10-17.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0053
    Abstract290)      PDF(pc) (4744KB)(149)      
    Dimensional stability is an important mission of GF-7 satellite structure design. The influence factor analysis was carried out in accordance to the demand of structural dimension stability, and then the design and verification process of structural dimensional stability was proposed according to the decomposed index. Firstly, on the basis of the structure configuration design, the structure material selection plan was determined by sensitive analysis. Then the thermal and structure design of the key component of dimensional stability, the integrated support structure, was proposed. Finally, the mean coefficients of thermal expansion of structure were obtained by thermal distorsion test, and the feasibility of the index was verified by in-orbit thermal deformation analysis using the updated finite element model of the satellite. The results show that the design of GF-7 satellite structure meets the requirements of dimensional stability index.
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    Micro VLBI network for GEO satellite monitoring
    ZHANG Zhibin, WANG Wei, YANG Peng, KALIUZHNYI Mykolay, MI Ligong, LI Guanghui, LI Peng, TANG Zhenghong, CUI Lang, HUANG Yong, WANG Guangli
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 119-125.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0065
    Abstract287)      PDF(pc) (2483KB)(156)      
    According to the requirements of all-time, allweather and high precision geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite monitoring, a simple very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observing system was developed and a micro VLBI network (MVN) including Shanghai, Duyun and Urumqi was built. Debugging in collocated stations was performed and GEO satellite named as Apstar6C was monitored by MVN, whose observing capability was evaluated. The receiving accuracy of single station without systematic errors was 2ns. The results show that the post-fit residuals of different baselines are about several nanoseconds. Moreover, the accuracy of observed GEO satellite orbit is in the level of 100m (internal and external accuracy of about 100m and 400m respectively). Unlike traditional VLBI or other GEO monitoring techniques, MVN has features including all-time, all-weather, low cost, easy deployment and convenient marketing, showing its great application value in the field of GEO satellite monitoring.
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    Highprecision control technology and onorbit verification of GF-7 satellite
    CHEN Chao, DING Jianzhao, WANG Shuyi, LIU Jie
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 34-41.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0056
    Abstract285)      PDF(pc) (5870KB)(197)      
     The performance of GF-7 satellite attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) is improved by developing new very high precision star sensor and solar array driver architecture (SADA). The precision of AOCS is improved by adopting on-board parameter calibration and low frequency compensation between satelliteground loop technologies. The result of flight test shows that the control system achieves the angular-second highprecision accuracy and the control stability is expected to be within 10-5(°)/s, which indicates the control methods are effective. Compared with other control systems of satellites, the system of GF-7 satellite is advanced in the world which has improved the ability of highprecision control of satellites in China. At the end of this paper, the development direction of GF-7 highprecision control is pointed out.
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    Short-arc association algorithm for space target based on sine fitting
    HUANG Qiushi, ZHANG Yasheng, FENG Fei
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 111-118.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0064
    Abstract261)      PDF(pc) (6573KB)(83)      
    The star sensor is a high-precision attitude sensor with the ability to intermittently capture space targets and can be used as a space target monitoring platform. Accurately associating shortarc observations of star sensors is a prerequisite for achieving precise orbit determination of space targets. Through a large amount of observational data on the space target, it is found that the relationship between the declination and the right ascension of the space target always satisfies a sine curve with a period of 360 ° and that the peak value is related to the orbit inclination. A short arc association algorithm based on sinusoidal fitting for space targets was proposed, which avoids initial orbit determination and saves running time. In the simulation, the shortest observation time was 50s. By adding additional constraints to the dense GEO zone, it is possible to distinguish orbits with a 0.01 ° inclination difference. When the track interval is 3 h, the target association accuracy is above 90% under the three sets of noise conditions.
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    Fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of spacecraft attitude control system via deep neural network
    GENG Feilong, LI Shuang, HUANG Xuxing, YANG Bin, CHANG Jiansong, LIN Bo
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (6): 1-12.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0066
    Abstract257)      PDF(pc) (4795KB)(223)      
    In order to solve the problem of low diagnosis accuracy and control allocation efficiency of traditional fault diagnosis and faulttolerant control methods, this paper proposes a new method of fault diagnosis and fault tolerance control for spacecraft attitude control system based on deep neural network. Taking the control moment gyroscopes as actuator, the method can achieve robust attitude control when the actuator fails. First, we use three heterogeneous deep neural networks to achieve the functions of fault diagnosis, attitude control and torque distribution of traditional faulttolerant controllers, and the intelligent adaptive faulttolerant controller architecture of full neural networks is established. Then, the parameters of the three neural networks such as the number of network layers, the number of neurons and activation functions are optimized and adjusted, and the influence of the parameters of the neural network on the performance of the controller is compared and analyzed. Numerical simulation is conducted to prove that the proposed new controller has good control accuracy and robustness when the control moment gyroscopes fail. The simulation results show that for the spacecraft with a redundant control moment gyroscope, the method proposed in this paper can not only achieve highprecision faulttolerant control under single gyro failure, but also ensure a certain attitude stability control when multiple gyroscope failures occur.
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    Error analysis and prediction of Klobuchar ionospheric model 
    PENG Yaqi, LI Chonghui, WANG Yiwen, WEI Wulei, DING Baichao, LIU Yangqian
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2021, 41 (1): 48-54.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2021.0006
    Abstract256)      PDF(pc) (5519KB)(115)      
     Ionospheric delay error is one of the most important error sources in global navigation satellite system (GNSS). At present, the most widely used ionospheric delay correction model is the Klobuchar parameter model, but the correction rate of this model can only reach about 60%, which cannot meet the increasing accuracy requirements. The high-precision ionospheric grid data published by the international GNSS monitoring & assessment system (iGMAS) were used as a reference value to calculate and analyze the error of Klobuchar ionospheric model. The results show that the error in the mid latitude region has obvious periodic characteristics. To further improve the correction accuracy of the Klobuchar ionosphere model in the mid-latitude region, a Klobuchar ionospheric error prediction model was established based on particle swarm optimization back propagation (BP) neural network. Error prediction was made by taking the sample data of October 2019 as an example. The results show that accuracy can be improved to about 90% by using the model to compensate for the ionospheric delay error in the mid latitude region.
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    Design of point return orbit for human lunar polar exploration mission
    LU Lin, LI Haiyang, LIU Jianghui, YANG Luyi
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 61-71.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0059
    Abstract246)      PDF(pc) (4734KB)(77)      
    The optimal design of point return orbit was studied for human lunar polar exploration mission. According to the characteristics of lunar polar orbit (LPO), three return orbit maneuver schemes were proposed. Considering threeimpulse maneuver scheme, a serial orbit solution strategy from initial calculation to accurate calculation was adopted to design point return orbit. The initial orbit was obtained by establishing a novel model with threesegment two-body patched orbits based on pseudoperilune parameters to decouple the threeimpulse maneuver with the lunar escape. Two-segment orbits were matched to get precise point return orbit by using numerical continuation theory and the suggested backward and forward orbital integral model with high precision perturbation. The effectiveness and reliability of the approach proposed were demonstrated by simulation test. According to the simulation results by the method, the orbit characteristics of point return orbit were analyzed. The research conclusions can provide reference for the design of point return orbit scheme in human lunar polar exploration missions in the future.
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    A disturbance mitigation method for moving appendages on spacecraft
    LU Dongning, GUO Chaoyong, WANG Shuyi, CHEN Chao
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 26-33.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0055
    Abstract245)      PDF(pc) (5717KB)(154)      
    To improve the attitude stability of the GF-7 spacecraft under disturbances from moving appendages,especially those induced by dualaxis directional antennae, a motion smoothing method was proposed and the corresponding disturbance mitigation technique was investigated. Firstly, as the attitude disturbances were usually caused by the data transmission antennae′s rapid capturing of ground targets for communications, a motion planning method with global smooth angular velocity was presented. Secondly, the general attitude dynamic equations of spacecraft with dualaxis antennae, which held true under any angular velocities, were developed and verified by comparison simulations. Then, feedforward compensation was developed and applied in the attitude control loop for reducing the disturbances from the antennae. Simulation results show that the proposed methods mitigate the disturbances of moving appendages by 90% while the antenna was working.
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    Research on performance evaluation of small reconnaissance satellite constellation
    WANG Hao, ZHANG Zhanyue, ZHANG Haitao, JIANG Ping
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (6): 68-76.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0073
    Abstract245)      PDF(pc) (1730KB)(155)      
    To evaluate small reconnaissance satellite constellation′s performance, some performance indexes were studied from three aspects: coverage, cost and flexibility. The coverage capability evaluation model, cost estimation model and flexibility capability evaluation model were built. In the coverage capability evaluation model, satellite storage capacity was taken as a constraint condition, satellite working conditions were analyzed by combining with the satellite coverage geometry model, and a calculation method of coverage indexes considering satellite storage capacity was proposed. The cost of each subsystem of constellations was estimated by the small satellite cost model(SSCM). In the flexibility evaluation model, the performance loss rate was proposed, and the weight of performance loss rate was determined according to the probability function of failure states. Applying the models to the performance evaluation of SkySat and Jinlin No.1 (JL-1) constellation, the results show that SkySat constellation has stronger coverage ability, lower cost and poorer flexibility than those in JL-1. The above models proposed in this paper can be used to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of constellations and provide references for the construction and performance evaluation of small reconnaissance satellite constellation.
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    Characteristics analysis of hybrid propulsion geostationary orbit
    DUAN Xiaowen, QI Rui, WANG Min
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (6): 48-55.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0071
    Abstract234)      PDF(pc) (6707KB)(149)      
    Taking the transfer orbit design of the geosynchronous orbit satellite as mission background, the hybrid chemical electric propulsion orbit transfer was designed and analyzed to address the problems of great fuel consumption of fully chemical propulsion and long transfer time of fully electric propulsion.  Firstly, the influence of inclination and argument of perigee of switching orbit on transfer performance was analyzed. Analysis indicates that inclination should be used as one of the optimization variables. Secondly, the perigee radius, apogee radius and inclination of the switching orbit were used as optimization variables to construct the search grid. Each point in the grid corresponded to one switching orbit. For each switching orbit, a chemical propulsion orbit segment and an electric propulsion orbit segment were computed separately. The chemical propulsion segment was achieved by Lambert transfer, and the electric propulsion segment was achieved by using hybrid method for optimization. Finally, taking fuel consumption and transfer time as design index, exhaustive search for the switching orbits in the search grid was implemented, and the trend of hybrid propulsion transfers in the entire solution space was analyzed. The method proposed provides a family of solutions, filling the gap between the fully chemical transfer solution and fullyelectric transfer solution. The solutions have different combinations of fuel consumption and transfer time, and can be used in future missions.
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    Design and trial of extraterrestrial artificial photosynthesis device
    FENG Deqiang, ZHANG Ce, JIANG Wenjun, LI Long, YANG Dongsheng, LAI Xiaoming, SONG Jian, YAO Wei
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (6): 13-22.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0067
    Abstract234)      PDF(pc) (6062KB)(103)      
    In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology is a promising process for recycling extraterrestrial resources and constructing life support system to realize survival in extraterrestrial environment. ISRU has been the core technology in human deep space exploration. Based on the microchannel technique, a flow reactor was designed to simulate artificial photosynthesis in microgravity and other special environmental conditions as well as to realize the conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen and hydrocarbons. The microchannel based reactor can accelerate the products of the gas-liquid reaction from the electrode surface with the reaction medium by the sheer force. Theoretically, it can overcome the influence of microgravity conditions on the reaction process, which needs to be verified by microgravity experiments in future. Simultaneously, the optimized reaction conditions can be obtained in the microchannel structure by precisely controlling the pressure, flow rate and ratio of input gas to liquid. Based on the artificial photosynthesis reactor, an extraterrestrial artificial photosynthesis device was developed, which integrated the reaction module, control module, flow drive module and detection module. The feasibility of the reactor in reducing carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbonaceous compound (CO) was verified by ground experiment. With Au and Ir/C as the catalytic cathode and anode electrode respectively, the evaluation rate of O2 can reach 11.74 mL/h under 3 V applied voltage. This device possesses multifunction of in-situ physicochemical reaction, medium supply, precise control, products collection and analysis. And this device can implement effective conversion of carbon dioxide and oxygen generation. The work provides a theoretical and practical foundation for subsequent device optimization, carbon dioxide conversion to variable hydrocarbon products with high selectivity, and on-orbit test of artificial photosynthesis device.
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    Control method for variable skew configuration control moment gyros
    ZHANG Kebei, GAO Jingmin, GUAN Xin, GUO Zixi
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (6): 23-32.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.006
    Abstract231)      PDF(pc) (9440KB)(169)      
    The momentum envelope of fixed skew configuration control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) cannot be changed flexibly to meet the different satellite attitude maneuver requirements. The control method for variable skew configuration CMGs was designed. The dynamic model of the variable skew configuration CMGs was established. Considering multiple control variables, such as gimble rate, highspeed rotor speed and skew angle rate, the steer control law of the variable skew configuration CMGs was designed. The momentum envelope of CMGs and singular state distribution were analyzed. The variable skew configuration CMGs were used to achieve the satellite threeaxis attitude agile maneuver control. The simulation results show that the control method for the variable skew configuration CMGs can realize the satellite threeaxis attitude agile maneuver control with different number of CMG faults
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    Technical project of ion propulsion for satellites in super low Earth orbit 
    YANG Fuquan, WANG Chengfei, HU Jing, ZHANG Hong, WU Chenchen, ZHANG Xingmin, GENG Hai, FU Danyin
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2021, 41 (3): 52-59.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000.758X.2021.0038
    Abstract223)      PDF(pc) (3138KB)(201)      
    The Earth's outer atmosphere at the low altitude causes a significant drag on the spacecraft such as scientific detection and Earth observationsatellites in super low earth orbit, furthermore the atmospheric drag changes in a wide range along with solar activity, geomagnetic activity, seasonal and diurnal cycle. In order to meet the demands for satellite orbit accuracy or flight conditions, this drag needs to be continuously or intermittently compensated by onboard thrusters. Considering drag free flight and orbit maintenance at an altitude of about 220~268km, the variety of atmospheric drag and the specifications of the spacecraft payloads were analyzed, and then the researches were carried out on the technical parameters, thrust throttling approaches, system architecture, thrust control project and onorbit application strategy of ion propulsion. Accordingly thrust throttling tests were executed .The results show that ion propulsion should operates over a thrust range of 1~20mN with the thrust resolution of 12μN, and over a thrust range of 1~25mN with the thrust resolution of 100μN for drag free and orbit maintenance mission respectively.The technical project of ion propulsion is valuable for application reference of satellites in super low Earth orbit. 
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    Recent research advances of passive intermodulation suppression methods for aerospace microwave components
    WANG Xiaoli, CHEN Xiang, LI Jun, CUI Wanzhao
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2021, 41 (2): 1-9.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2021.0016
    Abstract221)      PDF(pc) (2921KB)(119)      
    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is widespread in high power microwave passive components and systems, which may cause serious interference in satellite and terrestrial communication systems. The PIM suppression technology is a key research issue in both theory study and engineering applications, and is important to solving various PIM problems. On the basis of explaining the generation mechanism of PIM, the existing PIM suppression methods and research status at home and abroad are systematically and comprehensively summarized from the aspects of process, structure, electrical design and signal processing, and the advantages and disadvantages of various suppression methods are discussed. On this basis, the subsequent development trends are analyzed. Based on traditional process structure optimization design, integrated design based on advanced manufacturing technology, contactless passive intermodulation suppression and digital signal processing to achieve PIM suppression are the important future directions, which bring new ideas and methods for PIM research.
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    Design method of multi-level regional reconnaissance elastic constellation
    WANG Hao, ZHANG Zhanyue, ZHANG Haitao, JIANG Ping
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2021, 41 (4): 85-94.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2021.0054
    Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (4923KB)(116)      
    A design method of multi-level regional reconnaissance elastic constellations was proposed. The constellation design process was divided into three sub-constellation design steps according to region information until the whole constellation met the design requirements for all regional performance. Taking regions divided into 3 levels as an example, the constellation design requirements, design indicators and design steps were analyzed firstly. Then the relationship between the minimum resolution of the ground and orbital altitude was derived and the orbital altitude of different subconstellations was determined. Finally, the optimization models of basic constellation, subconstellation 1 and subconstellation 2 were constructed by considering orbital inclination, multisatellite launch and ascending nodal drift synchronization. The design case shows that the constellation designed with this method can meet the design requirements of regional coverage classification and elastic classification, which proves the effectiveness of the method. Compared with the design method of Walker constellation, the number of satellites required for multi-grade regional reconnaissance elastic constellation under the same design requirements is far lower than that of Walker constellation, which further proves the superiority of the proposed design method.
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    A feedback optimization access mechanism for satellite channel
    DING Yi, CAO Xinyu, CHENG Zijing, LI Jie, ZHONG Qionghui, JIN Jun
    Chinese Space Science and Technology    2020, 40 (5): 99-110.   DOI: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0063
    Abstract204)      PDF(pc) (3742KB)(111)      
    It is urgent to improve the utilization rate of satellite channel resources and explore both efficient and feasible satellite interactive terminal access mechanism in the development of satellite communication. The disparity between the requirements for free access of satellite interactive terminal as they come and the access mechanism based on bandwidth preplanning in the current satellite communications with DVBRCS standard is emerging. Therefore, a channel feedback optimization access mechanism is proposed. The mechanism based on the signaling features of original protocol comprehensively considered the data service requirements for each satellite interactive terminal, exploratively introduced a modest incentive method and creatively constructed a dynamic negotiation feedback model to increase the access number of satellite interactive terminals and satisfy the requirements of satellite terminal ondemand access as they come. It enhanced the channel utilization efficiency, and maximized the service benefits of overall bandwidth communication as well. The experiments have proved that the bandwidth allocation feedback optimization mechanism improved the access rate by nearly one time compared with the traditional model and the algorithm took only about 0.67s with maximum number of terminal access, which could be a technical reference for the current use of satellite channels.
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