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“嫦娥一号”卫星的调相轨道设计

杨维廉;   

  1. 中国空间技术研究院;
  • 出版日期:2010-02-25 发布日期:2010-02-25

Phasing Orbit Design for Chinese Lunar Satellite CE-1

Yang Weilian(China Academy of Space Technology,Beijing 100094)   

  • Online:2010-02-25 Published:2010-02-25

摘要: 中国第一颗月球探测卫星"嫦娥一号"的飞行轨道的设计中采用了调相轨道,在"长征三号甲"运载火箭提供的超地球同步转移轨道与地月转移轨道之间增加了一段由周期为24h和48h轨道构成的环绕地球飞行的调相轨道。为了将几条不同的轨道精确地拼接起来,必须考虑地球引力场对轨道的摄动影响。克服这个难点的做法是基于经典的轨道摄动理论,先将整段调相轨道设计为考虑地球引力场J2项影响的平轨道,在与运载的发射轨道拼接时,先将运载的包括短周期摄动的瞬时轨道转换为平轨道,在与地月转移轨道拼接时将调相轨道转换成拼接点的瞬时轨道。由于采用了平轨道的处理方法使得轨道控制策略的表述十分简明并易于操作。

关键词: 月球探测, 地月转移轨道, 调相轨道, 轨道摄动, 卫星

Abstract: A new concept of phasing orbit was adopted in the orbit design for the first Chinese lunar satellite.The phasing orbit established a connection between super GTO,which is inserted by the launch vehicle CZ-3A,and the trans-lunar trajectory.In order to make the conjoint orbit more accurate,the orbital perturbations caused by earth gravitational field should be taken into consideration.For doing so making use of the solution to the classical general perturbation theory is a good choice.Based on the solution,we can perform transformation between the osculation elements and the mean orbits.First transfer GTO into mean orbit,then connect it to mean phasing orbits,after that transform back to osculation one and connect with translunar-trajectory.