中国空间科学技术 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 45-.doi: 10.16708/j.cnki.1000-758X.2020.0006

• 研究探讨 • 上一篇    下一篇

空心阴极热特性优化研究

于博,宋娜,康小录   

  1. 1.电子科技大学资源与环境学院信息地学研究中心,成都600731
    2.上海空间推进研究所,上海201112
  • 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-02-18

Thermal characteristics optimization of hollow cathode

YU Bo, SONG Na, KANG Xiaolu   

  1. 1Center for Information Geoscience, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,
    Chengdu 611731,China
    2Shanghai Institute of Space Propulsion, Shanghai 201112,China
  • Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-02-18

摘要: 空心阴极常用于霍尔或离子电推进系统的电子源,其热特性对自身工作寿命和能效有重要影响。为考察工作过程中阴极的温度分布和热耗散特性,对空心阴极进行数值分析。采用等离子体流场计算数据与温度场计算数据互为输入条件,进行反复迭代的方式,计算稳态下阴极内部的温度场。为验证模型与计算代码的正确性,在真空舱内开展阴极的放电试验,利用热电偶与光学温度计对阴极5个测点进行测温,并将试验结果与计算结果进行比对。结果表明,计算的最大误差在5%以内。在此基础上,考察了不同结构、材料空心阴极内部的温度分布以及热耗散情况。当阴极整体长度由小变大时,阴极整体热耗散功率会先减小后增大,而采用发射率较高的外壳材料会提高阴极整体热耗散且降低整体温度。

关键词: 空心阴极, 热特性, 辐射传递系数, 温度分布, 热耗散

Abstract:  The hollow cathode commonly serves as an electron source in ion or Hall propulsion systems, and its thermal characteristics exert a great impact on the cathode’s performance and life time. In order to study the temperature distribution and heat consumption power of the operating hollow cathode, a numerical analysis was conducted. The cathode temperature distribution in steady state was solved by combining the fluid calculation (F process) and the heat transfer calculation (HT process), in which both the F process and the HT process provided the input conditions to each other and iterated over again. A temperature measurement test was performed to justify the model’s accuracy. Five measurement points were set on the cathode surface, and the temperatures solved by the calculation were compared with test results. The maximum calculation error is less than 5%, based on which the thermal characteristics were modeled with different cathode structures and materials. The results show that the heat consumption power presents a trend of firstdecreasethenincrease with the cathode changing from a shorter length to a longer one; the heat consumption power increases and the temperature decreases when higher emissivity keeper shell is adopted.

Key words: hollow cathode, thermal characteristics, radiation transfer coefficient, temperature distribution, heat consumption